Secret contracts (in which the agreement itself is secret) differ from secret negotiations (in which the current negotiations are confidential, but the final agreement is public). Colin Warbrick writes that in Britain, “the prerogative to negotiate and enter into contracts puts the government in a powerful position. It does not need to obtain a negotiating mandate from Parliament and can keep its positions confidential until the end of the negotiations.  The traditional pro-negotiation rule is in tension with the values of transparency: Anne Peters writes that “the growing importance of multilateral treaties as … The instruments call for an adaptation of the relative weight recognized to the values of discretion and confidentiality of diplomatic negotiations … on the one hand, and the interests of third parties and world public opinion on the other.”  The secrecy of negotiations on free trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the anti-counterfeiting trade agreement was politically controversial, with some commentators favouring greater transparency and others in favour of the need for confidentiality.    In the 19th century, neutrality pacts were used in the past to give a signatory to the Covenant permission to attack or try a unit that is not protected by the Neutrality Pact. Participants in the neutrality pact agree not to attempt to thwart an act of aggression by a pacsataire against an entity that is not protected under the terms of the Covenant. The desire to control or expand economic resources, places of military importance, etc., may be motivated by one or more states that are signatories to the pacts.  One of the most famous secret treaties in history was the secret additional protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939 between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, negotiated by Soviet Foreign Minister VyacheSlav Molotov and German Foreign Minister Joachim Von Ribbentrop.  The pact itself, a 10-year non-aggression agreement was public, but the additional secret protocol (replaced by a similar secret protocol, the German-Soviet border treaty next month) decoupled spheres of influence in Eastern Europe between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, placing Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Besarabian (Romanian part) and Eastern Poland in the Soviet sphere , as well as Western Poland and Lithuania. The existence of the secret protocol was not revealed until 1989; When it became public, it sparked outrage in the Baltic States.    On 15 March 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, breaking the agreement it had signed a year earlier in Munich with Britain and France. The invasion shook the British and French leaders and convinced them that Adolf Hitler, the German Chancellor, could not be considered capable of respecting his agreements and would probably continue to commit aggression until he was arrested by violence or by massive deterrence. The “elaborate alliance systems” between the European powers, “each guaranteed by a network of secret contracts, financial agreements and “military agreements”, are generally cited as one of the causes of the First World War.  For example, the June 1887 reinsurance contract between the German Empire and the Russian Empire (negotiated by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to avoid war on two fronts) was a “high-risk contract” in which the two powers committed a three-year period to remain neutral if the other were to be involved in a war with a third country. , unless, Germany attacked France or Russia`s long-standing ally.  Since Russia`s illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the increase in security challenges in the South, including brutal attacks by ISIL and other terrorist groups on several continents, NATO has implemented the largest increase in collective defence since the Cold War.